Churches in Medieval Hungary

1 – THE FORMATION OF THE HIERARCHY OF THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH IN ENGLAND AND HUNGARY, Endre ABKAROVITS
Cathedrals and parish churches surviving from the Middle Ages are among the greatest achievements of architecture attracting a lot of tourists today, but not many visitors are aware of their origin, rank, and function. When studying about English arts foreign students need to be aware of fundamental ecclesiastical concepts, have a thorough knowledge of the historical background and art terminology not only in connection with England, but, in my experience, with their native country as well. Though the structure of the Church was basically similar in the two countries, there were fundamental differences in the size and number of (arch)dioceses and parishes. In this paper I will concentrate mainly on the territorial formation of the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church in the eleventh century, which was a decisive period in both England and Hungary, and will conclude with a short description of the present situation.
2 – The Early Period of Lawmaking in Medieval Hungary

 

3 – THE FOUNDATION OF THE ARCHBISHOPRIC OF. KALOCSA: THE BYZANTINE ORIGIN OF THE. SECOND ARCHDIOCESE IN HUNGARY. Istvan Baanl. http://byzantinohungarica.hu/sites/default/files/Ba%C3%A1n%20Istv%C3%A1n/baan_foundation_kalocsa.pdf

4 – Between Rome and Constantinople: The Religious Structure of Medieval Hungary (13th-14th Centuries) http://dspace.bcucluj.ro/jspui/bitstream/123456789/48114/1/Pop%2BIoan%2BAurel-Between%2BRome%2Band%2BConstantinople-1998.pdf

 

 

 

Byzantine Church in Medieval Hungary

1 – The Role of the Byzantine Church in Medieval Hungary
Gyula Moravcsik
The American Slavic and East European Review
Vol. 6, No. 3/4 (Dec., 1947), pp. 134-151
ACCORDING TO the evidence found in historical records, the first influences of the Byzantine Christian mission had reached the Magyars prior to the conquest of present Hungary while they were still on the shores of the Black Sea. As I have proved in detail in an earlier treatise, we must surmise that, when they took possession of their present land, the Magyar people had brought with them a knowledge of Christianity.
2 – Churches since the Establishment of the Hungarian Kingdom up to Modern Times
3 – THE GREEK CHARTER OF THE HUNGARIAN KING STEPHEN I
The first Hungarian Christian ruler, King Stephen I (997–1038) issued several charters that have survived to this day. One of them is the charter issued on behalf of the nuns from the Monastery of the Holy Theotokos in Veszprémvölgy. The charter was written in the Greek language, and has been the subject of many studies. The original has not been preserved; what remains is a copy from the time of King Coloman, dated to 1109. The charter has not been published in a critical edition in any language other than Hungarian and even though it has been examined by numerous Hungarian scholars, many questions remain open. The aim of the author is to provide a critical edition and an English translation of the charter, but also to clarify some remaining doubts about the charter and its contents. Furthermore, some comparisons will be made with the Byzantine charters issued at the beginning of the 11th and during the 12th century.

A Concise History of the Armenian People

Source: Book: A History of the Armenian People_Ancient times to AD 1500

1492063759«The early edition of the much praised A History of the Armenian People in 2 volumes was the first comprehensive and objective history of the Armenians from ancient times to the early 1990s in English. It was adopted as a required text and used as a basis for lectures by instructors of Armenian history. Ten thousand copies later, the dwindling supplies, continuing demand, as well as the current political importance of the region have necessitated a revised and updated edition. The book examines the history of the Armenians in relation to that of the rest of the world. Its main purpose is to familiarize Armenians and non-Armenians with a people and culture that is absent from most history courses and texts.
The first part of the study discusses the origins of the Armenians, the Urartian Kingdom, Armenia and the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, Sasanid and Byzantine periods. It also examines Christinaity in Armenia and the development of an alphabet and literature. The work then continues with the history of Armenia during the Arab, Turkish and Mongol periods. A separate chapter deals with the history of Cilician Armenia and the Crusades». Source

The Church’s involvement in the economic life of Early Christian Greek towns

 http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/6221/

Zisimou-Tryfonidi, Eirini (2015)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.

Abstract

Inscription-ICG-746_editiontopoiThis thesis wishes to draw attention to the economic, social and political implications of the rise and establishment of the institutional Church in Early Christian Greece, particularly by exploring the pilgrimage, philanthropic and industrial function of the churches’ annexes. The diverse functions of churches annexes, besides reflecting a social dimension, they also reflect economic and political realities that require the development of an interdisciplinary approach, based on civil and ecclesiastical legislation, archaeology, epigraphy, history and theology, in order to explore the extent and the effects of the institutional Church’s activity in Greece. Interpreting Christian archaeology in key excavated sites of Greece by interweaving literary and material evidence both of ecclesiastical and secular origin, will help not only to ascertain how churches stood in relation to adjoining buildings combining religious and economic purposes, but also to restore to the most possible extent the Early Christian Greek urban and rural topographies.

http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/6221/1/ZisimouTryfonidi15PhD%2Dreduced_size.pdf

ZisimouTryfonidi15PhD-reduced_size

The Role and Status of the Catholic Church in the Church-State Relationship Within the Roman Empire from A.D. 306 to 814

Jean Carlos Zukowski, Andrews University

Source: http://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/dissertations/174/

http://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1173&context=dissertations

Abstract

This study analyzes and compares information from historical documents on the role and status of the church in the development of church-state relationships within the Roman Empire from A.D. 306 to 814 (from Constantine’s ascendancy to the throne, to Charlemagne’s death).

After the introductory chapter, chapter 2 analyzes church-state relationships at the time of Constantine. The chapter presents the Christian and Roman ways of understanding religion before Constantine, the changes that occurred because of Constantine’s conversion to Catholicism, and his religious policies.

Chapter 3 analyzes the church-state relationships that existed form the time of Constantine’s sons to the reign of Justinian. During this time, Catholicism replaced paganism and the Roman senate in the religious and political life of the empire. Also, it examines the development of the papacy and Justinian’s religious policies.

Chapter 4 analyzes the church-state relationship during the reign of Clovis. It analyzes the significance of Clovis’s conversion to Catholicism and to the political life of Gaul and the empire, as well as his model of church-state relations.

Chapter 5 analyzes the church-state relationship from Pope Gregory the great to the time of Charlemagne. It discusses Charlemagne’s religious policies and the importance of the Catholic Church and the papacy to the Frankish empire and the legitimacy of the Carolingian dynasty. It presents the papacy’s struggle for political power and its independence from the eastern empire after its alliance with the Frankish kings.

Chapter 6 analyzes and compares the church-state relationships that existed during the reigns of the four political leaders covered in the previous chapters- Constantine, Justinian, Clovis, and Charlemagne. The chapter suggests that the church-state model adopted by Justinian was similar to that of Constantine and the one adopted by Charlemagne was similar to that of Clovis.

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This study proposes that just as Constantine’s conversion and Charlemagne’s coronation are considered turning points in history, Clovis’s conversion and the reigns of Justinian and Vigilius can be considered tipping points for the beginning of the new European model of church-state relations and the fight for political supremacy by the papacy.

Subject Area

Church and state–Catholic Church–History, Church and state–History, Church and state–Rome–History, Catholic Church–History, Church history–Primitive and early church, ca. 30-600

 

The Black Death, Plague, and Mass Mortality

Andree Beauchamp
University of Manitoba
black-death-mass-graves1Abstract: Cultural funerary practices typically entail a set of common rituals, ceremonies, and treatments that are common to the cultural group. These practices are adhered to unless there is a significant culture change or the community experiences a catastrophe such as war, natural disaster, or epidemic. When such periods of disaster spread over a large territory and are experienced for a long period of time, such as during the epidemic of Black Death in Europe during the Middle Ages, it could be argued that the mass burials become a funerary practice in itself. There is value in identifying these catastrophic samples. By identifying the pattern of these mass burials researchers can identify such catastrophic examples with greater ease and place this distinct funerary situation within the larger context of funerary practices. The goal of this research is to distinguish the burial practices employed in Europe during the epidemic of Black Death from standard funerary practices at that time period and define the shift in burial practice as a funerary practice in itself. The pattern of mass burial observed during the Black Death epidemic will then be compared to other instances of mass burial to determine whether different causes for mass death and burial can be distinguished in the funerary practice.

004_The Black Death, Plague, and Mass Mortality

http://umanitoba.ca/publications/openjournal/index.php/mb-anthro/article/view/106

 

 

UNDERSTANDING EARLY CHRISTIAN ART • Robin Margaret Jensen

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A Book: UNDERSTANDING EARLY CHRISTIAN ART by Robin Margaret Jensen

https://is.muni.cz/www/216168/Understanding_Early_Christian_Art.pdf

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Understanding Early Christian Art integrates the motifs and subjects of early Christian art with the symbols and themes of early Christian literature and liturgy. The book begins with an analysis of the non-narrative subjects of early Christian art, for example the Good Shepherd, the praying figure, and fish and birds. The book then explores the narrative images, portraits, and dogmatically orientated figures found in Roman catacomb painting, sarcophagus relief sculpture, and early mosaics, ivories and manuscript illumination. The parallels between biblical exegesis as found in early homilies and catechetical documents and images portraying particular biblical figures are also discussed. Finally, the book examines iconographic themes such as Jonah, Daniel, Abraham offering Isaac, and Adam and Eve. Understanding Early Christian Art offers an insightful, erudite, and lavishly illustrated analysis of the meaning and message of early Christianity as revealed in the texts and images of the early Christians.

Early church organization in Skagafjörður, North Iceland. The results of the Skagafjörður Church Project

Early church organization in Skagafjörður, North Iceland. The results of the Skagafjörður Church Project

http://ojs.novus.no/index.php/CM/article/viewFile/1151/1142 003_Early church organization in Skagafjörður, North Iceland

by GUÐNÝ ZOËGA
The article discusses the results of the Skagafjörður Church project. The aim of the project is to establish the number and nature of the earliest, Christian cemeteries and churches in the county of Skagafjörður, north Iceland. By employing a systematic regional approach to the study of early Christian cemeteries, a more nuanced interpretation of early church development can be generated. The research suggests that at least 130 cemeteries may have been established in Skagafjörður in the 11th century, following the official adaption of Christianity AD 999/1000. The results indicate a swift adoption of Christian burial rites and cemetery architecture and that at first most independent farmsteads had their own Christian household cemetery. The apparent uniformity of burial customs and architecture suggests some form of management or communality from the outset. Many of these cemeteries appear to have gone out of use in the late 11th/ early 12th centuries, an indication of increasing ecclesiastical control.
DCIM100MEDIA

 

 

The Early Christian Landscape of East Anglia

The Early Christian Landscape of East Anglia

by

RICHARD HOGGETT
This paper explores aspects of the historical and archaeological evidence for the coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon East Anglia with a particular focus on the wide-scale restructuring of the landscape that the conversion precipitated. In order to establish the historical framework within which these events sit, it begins with an examination of the evidence presented by Bede in the Historia Ecclesiastica. Bede draws our attention to some of the ecclesiastical sites established by the early churchmen; a broader consideration of the conversion-period landscape reveals many important sites that are not mentioned in the surviving historical sources. In particular, disused Roman enclosures and topographically distinct locations can be demonstrated to have been of particular significance to the conversion process. The coming of Christianity also caused a great upheaval in the sites chosen for cemeteries, argued to be a direct result of a changing attitude towards the dead, which resulted in the integration of cemeteries and settlements during the Middle Saxon period.
Finally, this paper offers some suggestions about how we might take the study of the conversion-period landscape further.

Christian Ancient Burial Places

Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology
June 2014, Vol.2, No. 1, pp. 57-73
ISSN: 2334-2420 (Print), 2334-2439 (Online)
Copyright © The Author(s). 2014.
All Rights Reserved.
Published by American Research Institute for Policy Development LINK
Dr. Peter Caban
Abstract
Culture of a nation is expressed in the methods of burial. This sentence characterizes the basic archeological attitude towards the burial and all the related activities in the Christian antiquity. Natural desire of a human being that memory of him could be preserved in the next generations is visible in the methods of burying of the dead. In the burial places we find the archeological testimonies of the natural historical and religious environment where a human person– a Christian–lived, prayed and worked.
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