November 2 to 30, 2012
23 East 73rd Street, 7th Floor, Penthouse
New York, NY 10021
tel +1 212 717 7273
This full-color catalog explores the interrelationships between the East and West during the first millennium. This was the first time that the Roman Empire was gradually replaced by barbarian invaders, who spread through Europe and created new styles of jewelry; it was also when the capital shifted eastward to the newly founded city of Constantinople.
Among the themes treated are the transition from Late Roman types to Byzantine ones, including the design of new shapes; an interest in exotic stones and changes in fashion; the function of rings (marriage, personal monograms, official status and religious iconography); and the Western Gothic imitation and development of Byzantine prototypes.
Examples from the early third and fourth centuries in Rome feature an elaborate ‘key’ ring, pierced with the words utere felix (use with luck) and an ornate yet sophisticated band set entirely with emeralds. There is a late fifth-century Byzantine Parure that includes a pendant cross and related earrings. From the same era, an Ostogothic group is comprised of polyhedral earrings, a pendant cross and a ring, all with beautiful garnet inlay.
Jeffrey Spier is a university associate and adjunct professor at the University of Arizona. He has published extensively on Greek and Roman gems and jewelry and on early Christian and Byzantine art. His publications include: Treasures of the Ferrell Collection (2010); Picturing the Bible. The Earliest Christian Art (2007); Late Antiquity and Early Christian Gems (2007); and Ancient Gems and Finger Rings: Catalogue of the Collections. The J. Paul Getty Museum (1993).
The Preface is by Sandra Hindman, a medievalist and owner of Les Enluminures (Paris, Chicago and New York).
Studies on Hellenism, Christianity and the Umayyad, by Garth Fowden and Elizabeth Key Fowden
Garth Fowden and Elizabeth Key Fowden, Studies on Hellenism, Christianity and the Umayyads (Μελετήματα 34)
3 – THE FOUNDATION OF THE ARCHBISHOPRIC OF. KALOCSA: THE BYZANTINE ORIGIN OF THE. SECOND ARCHDIOCESE IN HUNGARY. Istvan Baanl. http://byzantinohungarica.hu/sites/default/files/Ba%C3%A1n%20Istv%C3%A1n/baan_foundation_kalocsa.pdf
4 – Between Rome and Constantinople: The Religious Structure of Medieval Hungary (13th-14th Centuries) http://dspace.bcucluj.ro/jspui/bitstream/123456789/48114/1/Pop%2BIoan%2BAurel-Between%2BRome%2Band%2BConstantinople-1998.pdf
«The early edition of the much praised A History of the Armenian People in 2 volumes was the first comprehensive and objective history of the Armenians from ancient times to the early 1990s in English. It was adopted as a required text and used as a basis for lectures by instructors of Armenian history. Ten thousand copies later, the dwindling supplies, continuing demand, as well as the current political importance of the region have necessitated a revised and updated edition. The book examines the history of the Armenians in relation to that of the rest of the world. Its main purpose is to familiarize Armenians and non-Armenians with a people and culture that is absent from most history courses and texts.
The first part of the study discusses the origins of the Armenians, the Urartian Kingdom, Armenia and the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, Sasanid and Byzantine periods. It also examines Christinaity in Armenia and the development of an alphabet and literature. The work then continues with the history of Armenia during the Arab, Turkish and Mongol periods. A separate chapter deals with the history of Cilician Armenia and the Crusades». Source
Zisimou-Tryfonidi, Eirini (2015)
Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.
This thesis wishes to draw attention to the economic, social and political implications of the rise and establishment of the institutional Church in Early Christian Greece, particularly by exploring the pilgrimage, philanthropic and industrial function of the churches’ annexes. The diverse functions of churches annexes, besides reflecting a social dimension, they also reflect economic and political realities that require the development of an interdisciplinary approach, based on civil and ecclesiastical legislation, archaeology, epigraphy, history and theology, in order to explore the extent and the effects of the institutional Church’s activity in Greece. Interpreting Christian archaeology in key excavated sites of Greece by interweaving literary and material evidence both of ecclesiastical and secular origin, will help not only to ascertain how churches stood in relation to adjoining buildings combining religious and economic purposes, but also to restore to the most possible extent the Early Christian Greek urban and rural topographies.
Jean Carlos Zukowski, Andrews University
This study analyzes and compares information from historical documents on the role and status of the church in the development of church-state relationships within the Roman Empire from A.D. 306 to 814 (from Constantine’s ascendancy to the throne, to Charlemagne’s death).
After the introductory chapter, chapter 2 analyzes church-state relationships at the time of Constantine. The chapter presents the Christian and Roman ways of understanding religion before Constantine, the changes that occurred because of Constantine’s conversion to Catholicism, and his religious policies.
Chapter 3 analyzes the church-state relationships that existed form the time of Constantine’s sons to the reign of Justinian. During this time, Catholicism replaced paganism and the Roman senate in the religious and political life of the empire. Also, it examines the development of the papacy and Justinian’s religious policies.
Chapter 4 analyzes the church-state relationship during the reign of Clovis. It analyzes the significance of Clovis’s conversion to Catholicism and to the political life of Gaul and the empire, as well as his model of church-state relations.
Chapter 5 analyzes the church-state relationship from Pope Gregory the great to the time of Charlemagne. It discusses Charlemagne’s religious policies and the importance of the Catholic Church and the papacy to the Frankish empire and the legitimacy of the Carolingian dynasty. It presents the papacy’s struggle for political power and its independence from the eastern empire after its alliance with the Frankish kings.
Chapter 6 analyzes and compares the church-state relationships that existed during the reigns of the four political leaders covered in the previous chapters- Constantine, Justinian, Clovis, and Charlemagne. The chapter suggests that the church-state model adopted by Justinian was similar to that of Constantine and the one adopted by Charlemagne was similar to that of Clovis.
This study proposes that just as Constantine’s conversion and Charlemagne’s coronation are considered turning points in history, Clovis’s conversion and the reigns of Justinian and Vigilius can be considered tipping points for the beginning of the new European model of church-state relations and the fight for political supremacy by the papacy.
Church and state–Catholic Church–History, Church and state–History, Church and state–Rome–History, Catholic Church–History, Church history–Primitive and early church, ca. 30-600
Zukowski, Jean Carlos, “The Role and Status of the Catholic Church in the Church-State Relationship Within the Roman Empire from A.D. 306 to 814” (2009). Dissertations. 174.
University of Manitoba
Abstract: Cultural funerary practices typically entail a set of common rituals, ceremonies, and treatments that are common to the cultural group. These practices are adhered to unless there is a significant culture change or the community experiences a catastrophe such as war, natural disaster, or epidemic. When such periods of disaster spread over a large territory and are experienced for a long period of time, such as during the epidemic of Black Death in Europe during the Middle Ages, it could be argued that the mass burials become a funerary practice in itself. There is value in identifying these catastrophic samples. By identifying the pattern of these mass burials researchers can identify such catastrophic examples with greater ease and place this distinct funerary situation within the larger context of funerary practices. The goal of this research is to distinguish the burial practices employed in Europe during the epidemic of Black Death from standard funerary practices at that time period and define the shift in burial practice as a funerary practice in itself. The pattern of mass burial observed during the Black Death epidemic will then be compared to other instances of mass burial to determine whether different causes for mass death and burial can be distinguished in the funerary practice.
A Book: UNDERSTANDING EARLY CHRISTIAN ART by Robin Margaret Jensen
Understanding Early Christian Art integrates the motifs and subjects of early Christian art with the symbols and themes of early Christian literature and liturgy. The book begins with an analysis of the non-narrative subjects of early Christian art, for example the Good Shepherd, the praying figure, and fish and birds. The book then explores the narrative images, portraits, and dogmatically orientated figures found in Roman catacomb painting, sarcophagus relief sculpture, and early mosaics, ivories and manuscript illumination. The parallels between biblical exegesis as found in early homilies and catechetical documents and images portraying particular biblical figures are also discussed. Finally, the book examines iconographic themes such as Jonah, Daniel, Abraham offering Isaac, and Adam and Eve. Understanding Early Christian Art offers an insightful, erudite, and lavishly illustrated analysis of the meaning and message of early Christianity as revealed in the texts and images of the early Christians.